The reasons contributing to the occurrence of polycythemia vera have not been definitively established. Pathology can be both hereditary and acquired. A family predisposition to the disease was discovered. In patients with polycythemia vera, gene mutations are detected that are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.
Polycythemia vera is of two types. Without adequate treatment for polycythemia vera, 50% of patients die within 1-1.5 years from the time of diagnosis. The clinical picture of polycythemia vera is divided into three stages. Polycythemia vera is characterized by a long asymptomatic course. The clinical picture is associated with increased production of red blood cells in the bone marrow, which is often accompanied by an increase in the number of benoquin cream cellular elements of the blood. An increase in platelet content leads to vascular thrombosis, which can cause strokes, myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attacks, etc.
At later stages, diseases can be observed. The diagnosis of polycythemia vera is established based on the data obtained during the examination. Diagnostic criteria for polycythemia vera. The disease occurs predominantly in older people (the average age of onset is approximately 60 years), but is also diagnosed in young people and children. Differential diagnosis with absolute and relative (false) erythrocytosis, neoplasms, and hepatic vein thrombosis is necessary.
To reduce blood viscosity in hyperviscosity syndrome, a course of medication (exfusions, bloodlettings) is performed. However, with initially high thrombocytosis, phlebotomy may contribute to the occurrence of thrombotic complications. For patients who do not tolerate bloodletting well, as well as in childhood and adolescence, myelosuppressive therapy is indicated.
Treatment of polycythemia vera is aimed primarily at preventing the development of leukemia, as well as prevention and/or treatment of thrombohemorrhagic complications. Symptomatic therapy is carried out to improve the patient’s quality of life.
Monobenzone drugs are prescribed for a long course (2-3 months) to reduce myeloproliferation, thrombocythemia, and also to prevent the development of vascular complications. Using hardware therapy methods (erythrocytapheresis, etc.), excess blood cellular elements are removed. To prevent thrombosis, anticoagulants are prescribed. To reduce the manifestations of skin itching, antihistamines are used. In addition, patients are advised to adhere to a dairy-vegetable diet and limit physical activity.